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Avoiding Plagiarism

Learn how to avoid plagiarism and to reference your sources correctly

About Footnote Styles

Like numbered styles, footnote styles give the reference an ascending number in the text and the full references are listed in that order at the bottom of the page in a footnote. A full list at the end of the work or chapter may also be required - although unlike with numbered styles, this may be in alphabetical order by surname, rather than in order of mention.

The Chicago 16th Edition style is the most well-known footnote style. In Chicago and other footnote styles there are rules that apply if you use a work again in another footnote. If you mention the citation again as the next footnote, then the term “ibid” (“in the same place”) is used instead of the reference. If it is used again after referring to a different citation, then a short form of the reference is used in the footnotes - the manual for the style will tell you what this should look like.

Chicago 16th

In the text:

Blah blah blah1

As a footnote at the bottom of the page:

1 Alex McClimens, Lynn Kenyon, and Heidi Cheung, "Exploring Placement Pathways in Nurse Education," British Journal of Nursing 22, no. 1 (2013).

(elements are separated by commas)

If used immediately again:

2 Ibid.

If used again after a different footnote:

4 McClimens, Kenyon, and Cheung, "Exploring Placement Pathways in Nurse Education."

In the reference list, which is in alphabetical order:

McClimens, Alex, Lynn Kenyon, and Heidi Cheung. "Exploring Placement Pathways in Nurse Education." British Journal of Nursing 22, no. 1 (2013): 8-15.

(first author’s name inverted, elements are separated by full stops)