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Avoiding Plagiarism

Learn how to avoid plagiarism and to reference your sources correctly

About Inline Styles

Inline citations use a brief summary of the reference in the text (such as listing the author and date, or the author and title, or author and page) with the full reference stated at the end of the chapter or work.

This final list is called a reference list or bibliography.

Generally the full list of references will be in alphabetical order by the first author’s surname.

Inline styles are sometimes called the “Harvard” style as they were first used at Harvard in the 1880s. They are also called “Parenthetical” styles as they enclose the partial information in brackets.

Two of the most popular Harvard-type styles are the APA 6th Edition, and the MLA 7th Edition. Our example is used to show the similarities and differences below.

The Library has books on these (and other) styles available to guide students on how to reference correctly.

APA & MLA

In the text:

Blah blah blah (McClimens, Kenyon, & Cheung, 2013).

Reference list:

McClimens, A., Kenyon, L., & Cheung, H. (2013). Exploring placement pathways in nurse education. British Journal of Nursing, 22(1), 8-15.

In the text:

Blah blah blah (McClimens, Kenyon and Cheung).

Reference list:

McClimens, Alex, Lynn Kenyon, and Heidi Cheung. "Exploring Placement Pathways in Nurse Education." British Journal of Nursing 22.1 (2013): 8-15. Print.

APA 6th

Blah blah blah (McClimens, Kenyon, & Cheung, 2013).

MLA 7th

Blah blah blah (McClimens, Kenyon and Cheung).

APA 6th

McClimens, A., Kenyon, L., & Cheung, H. (2013). Exploring placement pathways in nurse education. British Journal of Nursing, 22(1), 8-15.

MLA 7th

McClimens, Alex, Lynn Kenyon, and Heidi Cheung. "Exploring Placement Pathways in Nurse Education." British Journal of Nursing 22.1 (2013): 8-15. Print.

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Citation Reference Books